Investing in the stock market
chas historically been one of the most important pathways to financial success. As you dive into researching stocks, you’ll often hear them discussed with reference to different categories of stocks and different classifications. Here are the major types of stocks you should know.
Common stocks are shares of ownership in a corporation that afford their holders voting rights. They vary from preferred stocks in two key ways. Shareholders who own preferred stocks receive dividend payments before shareholders of common stocks, but preferred stocks do not come with voting rights
Preferred Stock ETFs invest in preferred stocks, which is a class of ownership in a corporation that has a higher claim on assets and earnings than common stocks. These securities make dividend payments, which are set at issuance, along with the par value of the preferred stock. Preferred shares are considered hybrid debt/equity instruments.
Large-cap, or large capitalization, stocks are a type of stock that belongs to very large, established companies like Apple and Microsoft. As a result of this, these stocks are often considered the safest of all equity investments. But like all other types of securities, large-cap stocks have both advantages and drawbacks.
Domestic stocks and international stocks
You can categorize stocks by where they’re located. For purposes of distinguishing domestic U.S. stocks from international stocks, most investors look at the location of the company’s official headquarters.
However, it’s important to understand that a stock’s geographical category doesn’t necessarily correspond to where the company gets its sales.
Growth stocks and value stocks
Another categorization method distinguishes between two popular investment methods. Growth investors tend to look for companies that are seeing their sales and profits rise quickly. Value investors look for companies whose shares are inexpensive, whether relative to their peers or to their own past stock price.
Growth stocks tend to have higher risk levels, but the potential returns can be extremely attractive. Successful growth stocks have businesses that tap into strong and rising demand among customers, especially in connection with longer-term trends throughout society that support the use of their products and services. Competition can be fierce, though, and if rivals disrupt a growth stock’s business, it can fall from favor quickly. Sometimes, even just a growth slowdown is enough to send prices sharply lower, as investors fear that long-term growth potential is waning.
Value stocks, on the other hand, are seen as being more conservative investments. They’re often mature, well-known companies that have already grown into industry leaders and therefore don’t have as much room left to expand further. Yet with reliable business models that have stood the test of time, they can be good choices for those seeking more price stability while still getting some of the positives of exposure to stocks.
IPO stocks are stocks of companies that have recently gone public through an initial public offering. IPOs often generate a lot of excitement among investors looking to get in on the ground floor of a promising business concept. But they can also be volatile, especially when there’s disagreement within the investment community about their prospects for growth and profit. A stock generally retains its status as an IPO stock for at least a year and for as long as two to four years after it becomes public.
Dividend stocks and non-dividend stocks
Many stocks make dividend payments to their shareholders on a regular basis. Dividends provide valuable income for investors, and that makes dividend stocks highly sought after among certain investment circles. Technically, paying even $0.01 per share qualifies a company as a dividend stock.
However, stocks don’t have to pay dividends. Non-dividend stocks can still be strong investments if their prices rise over time. Some of the biggest companies in the world don’t pay dividends, although the trend in recent years has been toward more stocks making dividend payouts to their shareholders.
Income stocks are another name for dividend stocks, as the income that most stocks pay out comes in the form of dividends. However, income stocks also refer to shares of companies that have more mature business models and have relatively fewer long-term opportunities for growth. Ideal for conservative investors who need to draw cash from their investment portfolios right now, income stocks are a favorite among those in or nearing retirement.
Cyclical stocks and non-cyclical stocks
National economies tend to follow cycles of expansion and contraction, with periods of prosperity and recession. Certain businesses have greater exposure to broad business cycles, and investors therefore refer to them as cyclical stocks.
Cyclical stocks include shares of companies in industries like manufacturing, travel, and luxury goods, because an economic downturn can take away customers’ ability to make major purchases quickly. When economies are strong, however, a rush of demand can make these companies rebound sharply.
Safe stocks are stocks whose share prices make relatively small movements up and down compared with the overall stock market. Also known as low-volatility stocks, safe stocks typically operate in industries that aren’t as sensitive to changing economic conditions. They often pay dividends as well, and that income can offset falling share prices during tough times.
Stock market sectors
You’ll often see stocks broken down by the type of business they’re in. The basic categories most often used include:
- Communication Services — telephone, internet, media, and entertainment companies
- Consumer Discretionary — retailers, automakers, and hotel and restaurant companies
- Consumer Staples — food, beverage, tobacco, and household and personal products companies
- Energy — oil and gas exploration and production companies, pipeline providers, and gas station operators
- Financial — banks, mortgage finance specialists, and insurance and brokerage companies
- Healthcare — health insurers, drug and biotech companies, and medical device makers
- Industrial — airline, aerospace and defense, construction, logistics, machinery, and railroad companies
- Materials — mining, forest products, construction materials, packaging, and chemical companies
- Real Estate — real estate investment trusts and real estate management and development companies
- Technology — hardware, software, semiconductor, communications equipment, and IT services companies
- Utilities — electric, natural gas, water, renewable energy, and multi-product utility companies
ESG investing refers to an investment philosophy that puts emphasis on environmental, social, and governance concerns. Rather than focusing entirely on whether a company generates profit and is growing its revenue over time, ESG principles consider other collateral impacts on the environment, company employees, customers, and shareholder rights.
Tied to ESG’s governing rules is socially responsible investing, or SRI. Investors using SRI screen out stocks of companies that don’t match up to their most important values. However, ESG investing has a more positive element in that rather than just excluding companies that fail key tests, it actively encourages investing in the companies that do things the best. With evidence showing that a clear commitment to ESG principles can improve investing returns, there’s a lot of interest in the area.
Read more: What Is ESG Investing?
Blue chip stocks and penny stocks
Finally, there are stock categories that make judgments based on perceived quality. Blue chip stocks tend to be the cream of the crop in the business world, featuring companies that lead their respective industries and have gained strong reputations. They typically don’t provide the absolute highest returns, but their stability makes them favorites among investors with lower tolerance for risk.